Lateral Wiki – A Digital Garden

Note: I have not cleaned up the extracted annotations, so hyphens and split words occur.

Extracted Annotations (10/02/2021, 20:20:05)

"==psychotic and psychotic-like thoughts are considered common experiences in the general population==. Given their widespread occurrence, such experiences cannot merely reflect pathological functioning" (p. 1)

"some dimensions might be informative for healthy functioning" (p. 1)

"reviewing research that links schizotypy to favorable functioning such as subjective wellbeing, cognitive functioning (major focus on creativity), and personality correlates" (p. 1)

"the large majority of so-called "psychosis-prone" individ uals (high in self-reported schizotypy), will never experience a psychiatric illness.4,5 Thus, ==it is possible that indiv idu- als who score high in schizotypy might have some ad van- tages==, guaranteeing its persistence over generations and contributing to the richness of human experience and performance." (p. 1)

"==These individuals seem to benefit from a healthy way to org anize their thoughts and experiences, that is, they employ an adaptive cognitive framework to explain and integrate thei r unusual experiences. We conclude that, instead of focusin g only on the pathological, future studies should explore the behavioral, genetic, imaging, and psychopharmacological c orrelates that define the healthy expres- sion of psychoticlike traits==" (p. 1)

"Sticking to a purely pathological perspective, however, seems one-sided when considering that scores in such se lf-report questionnaires vary widely in the general popu lation" (p. 1)

"In particular, we review studies on health/social wellbein g, flexible and unconventional thinking (in particular cre ativity) and psychological styles, and personality featu res" (p. 1)

"In the healthy population, schizotypal traits are often accompanied by lower life satisfaction and higher negati ve affect. Even when negative affect is accounted for, ==lower life satisfaction was most importantly associated with negative and disorganized schizotypy, but not with positive schizotypy==" (p. 2)

"the group high in negative schizotypy was particularly stress susceptible (eg, perceived stress, avoidant coping)" (p. 2)

"==In the case of positive schizotypy, studies link this subdimension to pleasant and enriching mental experience==" (p. 2)

"In a context in which participants were exposed to experimental settings facilitating altered states of conscious ness, those scoring high as compared to low on positive s chizotypy reported higher and more intense levels of alte red perceptual experiences and visual imagery… such settings (eg, shamanism) were associated with enha nced self-healing, raising the notion that positive schizotypy in the right context would be beneficia" (p. 2)

Those scoring high on positive schizotypy had more intense experiences, and settings like shamanism were associated with self-healing. Positive schizotypy might then be beneficial, in the right context.

"another study showed that individuals holding peculiar beliefs (eg, faith healing, angels, ESP) and who perceive t hem as being important to their lives consider these belie fs to have a positive impact enhancing their understandin g of the world and themselves. The more this relations hip was observed, the less individuals experienced psychological distress" (p. 2)

The more an individual consider their "delusions" (alternative beliefs) to be important to their lives, the more positive impact the beliefs had. The more they followed this belief, the less psychological distress they felt.

Ignoring it when you feel a calling of some sort, or experience something… spiritual, will probably then increase your "psychological distress"

"significant relationships between NRM and magical t hinking (but not with paranoid ideation and perceptua l ideation" (p. 2)

"examples support this position, as shown by some recen t studies on new religious movements (NRM). Positive schizotypal traits in members of NRM (eg, Ha re Krishnas, Druids) were higher than those in both Ch ristians and nonreligious control groups.21 In another s tudy, higher delusional ideations were observed in me mbers of NRM when compared with controls.22 This st udy also showed that NRM members had comparable delusional ideations to deluded patients.22 Importantly , however, NRM members seemed less distressed and pre occupied by their experiences than were patients" (p. 2)

Placed in an organized and social context, alternative beliefs are just that. If not, they can become delusions. A community with the same/similar beliefs will potentially prevent experiencing psychological distress caused by the beliefs.

"a group of individuals high in positive schizotypy (wi th average or below average scores on negative schizotyp y and cognitive disorganization) showed favorable sub jective and psycho- logical wellbeing comparable to that of individuals with low schizotypy." (p. 3)

"==high positive schizotypy in itself might reflect healthy schizotypy== which in the relative absence of negative schizo typy and cognitive disorganization ==is able to constructively integrate positive schizotypal beliefs and experiences into a meaningful and coherent cognitive belief framework==" (p. 3)

"Over many decades,== reports mentioned links between "genius and madness" including "psychopathology causing creativity, creativity leading to psychopathology==, a third variable causing both, and other plausible models involving multiple factors."34(p. 7)" (p. 3)

"While the exact nature and causality of a possible link remains open to debate, cognitive models have long proposed that such psychiatric patients suffer from deficient selective attention mechanisms disabling their ability to inhibit irrelevant information and leading to remote associations and an overgeneralization.37" (p. 3)

A deficient selective attention mechanism disables the ability to inhibit irrelevant information and leads to remote associations and overgeneralization.

"Yet, when such methods were ies used laboratory creativity tests, or otherwise standardized scientific methods applied, results indicated that patients do not show superior creative functioning when compared with controls or other psychiatric patient groups, but perform worse." (p. 3)

"Jacobson questioned in 1926 that "geniuses are geniuses because they are insane"43(p. 92) arguing instead "that the great genius Creative individuals must be eminently sane when in action, if the works produced are to rank high."43(p. 94) require periods of sane functioning despite potential psychopathological tendencies, conditions more likely being encountered in healthy relatives of patients and individuals high in schizotypy.31,44,45" (p. 3)

"it has been reported that schizotypy (mainly positive schizotypy)39,54 as well as Eysenck's Psychoticism scores55 enhanced convergent thinking abilities.56 Similar conclusions have been drawn for divergent thinking abilities.56,57" (p. 3)

"The creative, uncommon associations and solutions involved in creativity are thought to result from a person's ability to browse remote semantic information within semantic networks.66" (p. 3)

"A  link between enhanced creativity and schizotypy has been confirmed in numerous studies using experimental S438 creativity tests.46-50" (p. 3)

"In schizotypy, individuals are not only found to produce more remote associations they also perceive remote associations to be more closely related to each other.54,67,68" (p. 4)

"this bias for remote associative processing in positive schizotypes is thought to result from a bias toward right hemisphere processing, in particular for language functions,68-71 probably because of an overall stronger right hemisphere activation72,73 mediated by dopaminergic mechanisms.70,74" (p. 4)

"Potentially, all populations along the psychosis continuum yield enhanced divergent thinking abilities, without necessarily being all able to again converge their remote associative thinking to a reasonable and usable thought." (p. 4)

"Abraham et al55(p. 531), pointed out "Psychoticism then appears to only facilitate the ability to produce original, unusual or uncommon responses in a generative task and has little bearing on the usefulness or suitability of these responses."" (p. 4)

""generativity refers to the inspired creation of new forms, genres, or ideas, whereas consolidation refers to the more secondary process activities of refinement, editing, polishing, and communicating."76(p.107)" (p. 4)

"Generativity might be as potent in psychiatric populations as it is in healthy schizotypes and/or conventionally trained creative populations, while the process of consolidation might be hampered in clinical populations only" (p. 4)

"We suggest that consolidation is intact in the healthy schizotype, while it is increasingly hampered along the psychosis dimension" (p. 4)

"studies showed deficits in the appreciation of irony along the schizophrenia spectrum, with humor and metaphor processing being relatively intact in schizotypy.80-85" (p. 4)

"high as compared to low scoring schizotypal individuals performed more correct solutions for insight problems" (p. 4)

"While all schizotypy dimensions were associated with deficient reasoning abilities, it seemed that enhanced negative schizotypy caused these deficits" (p. 4)

"not find reasoning deficits as a function of any schizotypy subdimension" (p. 5)

"slightly enhanced positive schizotypy was associated with less logic-like responses" (p. 5)

"positive schizotypy does not seem to be related to inferior or superior logical reasoning abilities, but propose intact or typical reasoning abilities with regards to healthy positive schizotypy." (p. 5)

"there is increasing evidence that the schizophrenias and bipolar disorder are overlapping clinical conditions, both descriptively and genetically, probably lying on a continuum,77,78,97 although independent studies question the notion of a continuum idea.98,99" (p. 5)

"positive schizotypy links to enhanced dissociation, openness to experience, absorption, false memories, and fantasy-proneness as well as to reduced agreeableness.30-32" (p. 5)

"it seems that positive schizotypy and hypomania, but less so negative schizotypy or cognitive disorganization seem related to the ability and ease with which one manipulates mental images and inner concepts.47" (p. 5)

"schizotypy is multidimensional.1-3" (p. 5)

"some psychotic trait features and their interaction might be disadvantageous while others are advantageous to an individual's functioning" (p. 5)

"being high in positive schizotypy seems more likely to be beneficial, that is, associated with personal wellbeing, flexible and unconventional thinking (including creativity), and favorable personality traits and psychological features (eg, openness to experience, fantasy-proneness)" (p. 5)

"debate between Sass104 that the creativity connection was mediated entirely by bipolar traits, while Sass disagreed and opted for the S440 schizophrenia connection. As it turned out, both were partly right and interesting; Nettle106 writing at the trait level, coined the term "thymotypy" to parallel "schizotypy" as the second of 2 routes to different forms or aspects of creativity" (p. 5)

Referred in

Schizotypy - Do Not Worry, It is not all Worrisome